Methods of Producing Electricity
Electrochemistry  Combining chemicals with certain metals causes a chemical reaction that transfers electrons.
Static electricity  When an object with a normally neutral charge loses electrons, due to friction, and comes in contact with another object having a normal charge, an electric charge is exerted between the two objects.
Magnetic induction  Rotating coils of wire through a stationary magnetic field or by rotating a magnetic field through a stationary coil of wire produces a potential.
Piezoelectric effect  Bending or twisting certain materials will cause electrons to drive out of orbit in the direction of the force. When the force is released, the electrons return to their original orbit.
Thermal Thermoelectricity  Heating two joined dissimilar materials will cause a transfer of electrons between the materials setting up a current flow.
Light  Photoelectric effect  Dislodging of electrons from their orbits by light beams creates positivelycharged objects.
Thermionic emission  Freeing electrons from a hot surface causes electrons to escape.
Magnetic being the most common, and widely used.
Matter and the Electrons (Hint  Electrons make Electricity)
If you're a genius you can click here to get a report on additional quantum theories. But, if you're like the rest of us...keep reading on.
Matter  is anything which has mass and takes up space.
Atom  The fundamental unit of matter made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
Electron  A negatively charged part of an atom that moves in the space around the nucleus
Neutron  A particle found in the nucleus of an atom that does not have an electrical charge
Proton  A particle found in the nucleus of an atom that has a positive electrical charge
Quark  Tiny particles that are components of protons and neutrons
Valence Shell  The outermost shell of an atom that can gain or lose electrons during chemical reactions.
First Orbit  No more than 2 electrons.
Second Orbit  No more than 8 electrons.
Third Orbit  No more than 18 electrons.
Fourth Orbit  No more than 32 electrons.



Ohm's Law  so VERY useful....
Don't get freaked out...just remember these rules and you'll be fine. Trust us.
Series Circuits  Only have one path of current flow. The only thing that stays the same is current.
Formula for Current (Amps) ( I ) is... IT = I1=I2=I3  Current stays the same
Formula for Voltage (Volts) (E or V) is... ET = E1+E2+E3  Voltage adds.
Formula for Resistance (Ohms) (R) is... RT = R1+R2+R3  Resistance adds.
Parallel Circuits  More than one path. The only thing that stays the same is voltage. And the resistance is a reciprocal, or divided by one.
Formula for Current (Amps) ( I ) is... IT = I1+I2+I3  Current adds.
Formula for Voltage (Volts) (E or V) is... ET = E1=E2=E3  Voltage stays the same.
Formula for Resistance (Ohms) (R) is... 1/RT = 1/R1+1/R2+1/R3  Resistance is the reciprocal
Total power = Voltage (E) multiplied by Amps (I) ....or shorter... P=E X I
The following wheel is a combination of the most used formulas used in electrical today. In each quarter, there are three formulas to get a certain value. For instance, to get a result of Volts (E)  there are three formulas  R X I, P/I, and P X R squared. And so on. Feel free to copy and paste this wheel to your book. There are no copyrights. The one you should NEVER forget is P= E X I. Or another way of saying it is Watts = Volts X Amps.

Batteries
Batteries  are considered direct current. DC, because they have a constant charge. They have a stored energy, that when connected to a path from negative to positive, it creates a difference of two points.
Otherwise, it is called a potential difference. A bird sitting on a power line doesn't get electrocuted, but the minute (the second) it touches two lines at the same time  it goes to heaven. We don't want you to go to heaven. Turn the power off!
There are two types of batteries
Primary Batteries  Disposable. Throw away.Types include  Alkaline Cell, Aluminum/Air Cell, LeclanchÃ© Cell (Zinc Carbon or Dry Cell), Lithium Cell, Mercury Oxide Cell, and Zinc/Air Cell.
Secondary Batteries  Rechargeable. Reuse.Types include  Iron Nickel Cell, Lead/Acid Cell, Lithium Ion Cell, Nickel/Cadmium Cell, Nickel/Metal Hydride (NiMH) Cell, Nickel/Zinc Cell, Sodium/Sulfur Cell
For a more in depth look at batteries, maintenence, etc. Look in our Industrial or Solar section of this site.